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THE REFORMATION AND EDUCATION      203

Unfortunately, the Book of Discipline was not accepted either by
the Church or by Parliament, and even those recommendations
which the Church was willing to adopt were only partially carried
into effect, because the endowments from the patrimony of the
disestablished Church necessary for their realization were in large
measure appropriated by greedy nobles. Nevertheless, they have
never ceased to exercise a deep influence on the course of educa-
tional development in Scotland. To that, perhaps more than
to anything else, is due the fact that education has always been
highly esteemed and earnestly sought by all classes in Scotland.

5. THE JESUIT SYSTEM OF EDUCATION

The organization of higher education on the twofold basis of
humanism and religion by the Protestant Churches called forth
a similar effort on the part of Catholic educators, which attained
a striking success in the Catholic countries of Southern Europe,
and even challenged the Protestant schools in their own lands.
The pioneer of this movement was a Spanish nobleman, Ignatius
of Loyola (1491-1556). Up to the age of thirty he had followed a
soldier's career, and had won distinction as a brave and chivalrous
man. But while recovering from a serious wound he was led by
reading the Life of Christ and the Lives of the Saints to renounce his
worldly ambitions and devote himself to a rigorous ascetic exis-
tence. Two years later he journeyed on foot to the Holy Land to
labour for the conversion of the Mohammedans. Having failed in
his object, he returned to Spain and set himself to make good the
defects of his early education by strenuous study, first in the
grammar school at Barcelona, then in the university of Alcala, and
finally in Paris. In Paris he gathered round him a small company
of like-minded students, and with five of them formed in 1534 a
new religious order called the Society of Jesus, which had for its
first object a missionary pilgrimage to Jerusalem. When that was
prevented by the Turkish wars, they broadened their plan, offered
their services to the Pope for mission work in any land, and were
formally recognized by him in 1540. In the meantime, the pro-
gress of the Reformation had created a grave problem for the
Church in Europe itself, and their activities were partly diverted to